Respiratory Disease Management in Livestock- New Challenges and Knowledge Gaps - What Is Critical on the Horizon?
Despite availability and use of numerous bovine respiratory pathogen vaccines and new antimicrobial drugs as well as greater understanding of the pathogenesis of bovine respiratory disease (BRD), pneumonia ranging from subclinical to fatal remains a major cause of morbidity, mortality and economic loss to the beef and dairy cattle industries. Gaps in our BRD knowledge that could greatly enhance our clinical management schemes mainly fall into four general questions. The objective of this presentation is to address briefly each question from the standpoint of general current knowledge and what we need to know to improve management and control of BRD. 1) Various environmental factors and stressors stimulate potential pathogens that are quiescent in the nasopharynx to replicate and be inhaled resulting in disease. Can a better understanding of this process translate into improved disease management? 2) Currently published studies indicate low inheritability for BRD resistance. Can BRD morbidity and mortality be reduced through genomic studies and breeding for genetic resistance. 3) Numerous antibiotics are currently available and in use to control and treat BRD, Does in vitro antibiotic resistance and susceptibility of BRD pathogens correctly predict in vivo antimicrobial efficacy? 4) In the last 20 years, we have greatly increased our knowledge base about immunity against BRD pathogens. What has been and can be translated from the research laboratory into improved commercial vaccines?
Keywords: cattle, disease, management