Use of Proteomics in Animal Health and Disease Research

Wednesday, July 23, 2014: 3:20 PM
2503 (Kansas City Convention Center)
P. David Eckersall , Institute of Biodiversity, Animal Health and Comparative Medicine, University of Glasgow, Glasgow, United Kingdom
Abstract Text: Proteomics is the application of advanced protein analytical methods to determine the individual protein components in a biological sample from cells, tissue or fluid.  These technologies have application wherever proteins are investigated and are essential for a full systems biology approach for integration of omic technologies to address myriad research questions.  While there have been great strides made in the applications of proteomics in research into human disease and for in vitro study there has been relatively limited application in farm animal health and disease.  However the value of proteomic investigation is being recognised in animal research.  The combination of two dimension electrophoresis and mass spectrometry was the initial approach to proteomic investigation and remains a powerful technology for proteome characterisation and biomarker discovery.  In our laboratory, investigation of bovine nasal secretion to assess its value as a non-invasive medium for diagnosis of bovine respiratory disease has revealed the presence of glutathione S-transferase as a significant component of the secretion.  g-Glutamyl transferase and alkaline phosphatase have also been identified in nasal secretion with active host defence mechanisms being suggested.  Recently non-gel based proteomics combining liquid chromatography with mass spectrometry have seen major application in farm animal research. Quantitative proteomics shows great promise in providing multiplexed assay systems for the simultaneous assay of numerous low abundance protein biomarkers.  For example, it has been shown that the concentrations of cytokines, acute phase proteins and bioactive peptides can be monitored in the same micro-litre volume of milk during bovine mastitis, using standards of specific peptides derived from the respective proteins with great potential for research into this important disease (Bislev et al., 2012 J Prot Res 11:1832).  Undoubtedly, the use of proteomics will become an established and valuable tool for animal health and disease research in the near future.

Keywords: proteomics, animal health