Physicochemical and sensory characteristics of Processed Cheese Manufactured From Goat's Milk Fed Diet Supplemented with Sunflower seed or Sunflower oil
Oilseed lipids are important sources of unsaturated lipids. Among oilseeds, linseed, soybeans, and sunflower seed are used both in farms and experimental work. Moreover, the enhancement of unsaturated fatty acids and conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) in milk products is important for human health. The aim of this work was to improve the fatty acid profile of processed cheese by using milk from goats fed with different supplements, namely, sunflower seed or sunflower oil. Fifteen lactating Damascus goats, in early lactation, were divided into three groups using complete randomized design for a 90-days experimental period. The treatments were (1) control ration consisted of concentrate feed mixture: bersem clover (1:1 dry matter bases), (2) control +50g/head/day sunflower seed and (3) control +20 ml/head/day sunflower oil. Pooled milk from each treatment was used in the manufacture of processed cheese. It was manufactured by using cheese base which was prepared by acidifying goats' milk with diluted lactic acid until coagulation. Cheese samples were stored at 7° C for three months. The results demonstrated that experimental additives increased (p<0.05) the total unsaturated fatty acids and CLA in the processed cheese. On contrast all additives decreased (p<0.05) the total saturated fatty acids and omega 6: omega 3 ratio and increased (p<0.05) the poly unsaturated fatty acids contents of the processed cheese fat. Processed cheese flavors, color and physical properties such as melting index, oil separation and penetrometer reading were not significantly affected by the experimental treatments. It can be concluded that sunflower seed or sunflower oil addition to lactating goats ration increased the nutritive value of processed cheese.
goat's milk, processed cheese, fatty acids profile.