Comparison Of The Effect Of Holstein-Friesian And Jersey Milk On Cheddar Cheese Production
The objective of this study was to compare the effect of using Holstein-Friesian or Jersey milk on the Cheddar cheese making process, cheese composition and sensory quality. Cheddar cheese was produced using Jersey and Holstein Friesian milk, and various blends (n=11), in the University pilot plant (100L vat) each month over a year to take into account seasonal variation. A significant difference in actual yield and moisture adjusted yield (37% moisture) was found between the two breeds with Jersey milk yielding 34.6% and 40.9% more respectively (P<0.001). The yield of whey for Jersey milk was significantly lower (-3.7%, P<0.001) as was the yield of protein in whey (-13.5%, P=0.014). However, concentrations of lactose and solids in whey for Jersey milk were higher (+3.6% and +3.8% respectively, P<0.001) and no difference was detected in the yield of fat in whey. The recovery of both fat and protein in cheese was higher for Jersey by 22.9% (P<0.001) and 11.9% (P=0.026) respectively, compared to Holstein-Friesian. Cheese making time for Jersey milk was significantly higher (+13.1%, P=0.008) even though coagulation time was significantly shorter (-44.5%, P=0.002). The longer cheese making time was due to the increase in time required for acidity development which has not been observed previously. In terms of cheese composition, Jersey milk produced cheese with higher levels of fat (+15.5%) and lower moisture content (-7.54%, P<0.001). No differences in protein, pH and salt were observed. Jersey milk showed a higher suitability for cheese making with higher recovery of component and higher yield.
The influence of seasonality on yield was studied and neither the actual yield nor moisture adjusted yield were significantly affected by season. Fat in whey was lowest in summer (-23.8 %), while protein in whey was lowest in winter (-18.1%, P<0.05). These changes in recoveries had, however, no significant effect on cheese composition.
Results to date suggest that using Jersey milk to produce Cheddar cheese may be more efficient than using Holstein-Friesian. Differences in the fat and moisture content of the cheese could impact on the sensory quality of the cheese. Sensory analyses are still in progress and will include texture, colour and standardized grading tests.
Cheddar cheese, cheese yield, breed