Influence of steeping DDGS on growth performance and digestive function in liquid fed weanling pigs
Liquid feeding of high-fibre co-products with supplementary fibre-degrading enzymes may increase feeding value and influence gut development. This study assessed the effect of extended steeping of DDGS on performance and digestive function in newly-weaned pigs (weaned at 20 days) fed corn- soybean meal based liquid diets (28% DM). Enzymes (67.2 IU/g DDGS β-glucanase; 15.36 IU/g DDGS Xylanase; AB Vista) were used in both treatments: steeped (sDDGS; DDGS with enzymes fed between day 5 and 14 of steeping in 39°C water at 16% DM) and unsteeped (usDDGS; DDGS and supplement mixed with water at time of feeding). Diet DDGS inclusion levels were 7.5% in phase 1 (d 0-7) and 25% in phase 2 (d 7-20) and 3 (d 21-35). The study was a randomized block design (n=6 pens, 14 pigs/pen). Results are lsmean±SEM (sDDGS vs usDDGS, respectively), except fermentation characteristics (mean±SD). On d 7,14, and 35 3 pigs per pen were euthanized for determination of liver, stomach, and small intestine (SI) weights, SI length, and digesta pH. VFA concentration was determined in d14 and d35 jejunal, ileal, and cecal digesta pooled among pigs in a pen. sDDGS batch (n=5) characteristics (d5 and d14, respectively) revealed average pH’s 3.54±0.16 and 3.04±0.08, lactic acid 127.1±22.3 and 72.5±26.6 mM, and n-Butyric acid 38.7±14.5 and 41.6±27.1 mM. Unsteeped diets had pH 5.97 (n=1), lactic acid 11.9±11.8 mM (n=3),and n-Butyric acid 7.1±6.5 mM (n=3). Steeping did not affect (P>0.10) growth performance (day 0-35 ADG 289±15.8 and DMI 416.9±10.3 g/d (n=6) vs. ADG 290±17.5 and DMI 415.7±11.4 g/d (n=5)), d7 physiological parameters (P>0.10), or any gastrointestinal section weights (P>0.05). Liver weight relative to BW was higher (P<0.05) in sDDGS pigs on d14 while absolute liver weight was higher (P<0.05) on d35 (30 vs. 27 ±1 g:kg BW and 638 vs. 542 ±21 g). sDDGS increased (P<0.05) d14 jejunal formic and n-butyric acid (84.6 vs. 9.0 ±16.8 and 61.8 vs. 42.1 ± 6.0 mM) without altering pH (P>0.10). On d35 sDDGS increased (P<0.05) cecal formic acid and decreased pH (P<0.05) (71.7 vs. 153.7 ±18.8 mM and 5.49 vs. 5.74 ± 0.07). No other VFA concentrations were affected (P>0.05). sDDGS decreased (P<0.05) d35 colon pH (5.64 vs. 5.85 ± 0.07) without altering pH elsewhere (P>0.10). Results indicate steeping DDGS with enzymes results in altered enteric fermentation without affecting growth performance.
Keywords: digestive function, enzymes, liquid feeding pigs