Description of High Cow Premix Recipes in California Dairies

Monday, July 21, 2014
Exhibit Hall AB (Kansas City Convention Center)
Yolanda Trillo , VMTRC, University of California, Tulare, CA
Alfonso Lago , DairyExperts, Tulare, CA
Noelia Silva-del-Rio , VMTRC, University of California, Tulare, CA
Abstract Text:

The objective of this study was to describe high cow premix (HCP) recipes prepared in 13 California dairies ranging in size from 1,000 to 6,000 cows. Records from a consecutive twelve month period, starting from Jan-June 2012, were extracted from the feeding management software FeedWatch 7.0.  The variables included were: date, drop number, recipe, ingredient, loading sequence, target weight, as-fed weight, tolerance level, and mixer wagon capacity. Descriptive statistics were conducted with SAS 9.3.  Throughout the study period, HCP recipes were prepared on farm at least 90% of the days (n=3) or less than 70% of the days (n=5). The median number of HCP recipe prepared per day were one (n=5), two (n=7) or four (n=1). The median number of ingredients included daily in the HCP recipe was four to six (n=7) and seven to nine (n=6).  The number of ingredients included in HCP recipe varied over time within dairy in three (n=3), two (n=5), one (n=4) or zero (n=1) ingredients.  The most commonly used ingredients in HCP recipes were canola meal (n=13), whole cotton seed (n=11), dry distillers grains (n=8), corn gluten meal (n=8), almond hulls (n=6), wheat middlings (n=6), molasses (n=5) and rolled corn (n=5).  Forages were also included in the HCP [straw (n=5), alfalfa hay (n=1)].  Other ingredients used less frequently were slow release non-protein nitrogen (n=3), beet pulp (n=2), rice grain (n=2), cotton meal (n=2), safflower (n=2), whey (n=2), soybean meal (n=2), by-pass fat (n=1), ground wheat (n=1), and soyhulls (n=1).  All dairies but one added the mineral-vitamin mix in the HCP.  The ingredients most frequently added first were straw (n=4), cotton seed (n=3), canola meal (n=3), almond hulls (n=1), mineral-vitamin mix (n=1) and wheat middlings (n=1). The ingredients added most frequently last were molasses (n=5), whey (n=2), mineral-vitamin mix (n=4), beet pulp (n=2), soybean (n=1) or corn gluten meal (n=1).  Ingredients with assigned tolerance level >10% of admissible deviation from target were mineral-vitamin mix, molasses, and straw (n=1) and mineral-vitamin mix (n=1).  The frequency of HCP recipes prepared over 10% of the mixer wagon capacity (based on weight) was over 90% in four dairies. There is a large variation in HCP ingredients and preparation across dairies in California.


dairy cattle

high cow premix
feeding management software